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Welcome to the Collection of Monarchs, Members of World Royal Families, Public Figure. Feel free to click on any of the links below to select the Royal Houses of your interest. The register does not pretend to be exhaustive, the page is incomplete and some cases controversy exists about who is the rightful head.

Since 1800, most of the world's monarchies have been abolished by dismemberment or annexation, or have been transformed into republics; most current countries that are monarchies are constitutional ones. Among the few states that retain aspects of absolute monarchy are Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland and the Vatican City (the papal city-state, an electoral theocracy). In Jordan and Morocco, the monarch also retains considerable power. There are also recent (2003) developments in Liechtenstein, wherein the regnant prince was given the constitutional power to dismiss the government at will. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Maoist rebel movement and killings by a suicidal crown prince. In December 2007 the Nepalese government agreed to abolish the country's monarchy after the Constituent Assembly elections in 2008. The monarchy was formally abolished on the 28 May, 2008.

From the constitutional monarchies of Western Europe to the absolute monarchies of the Middle East to the figurehead monarchy of Japan, royals play many roles in the modern world

The work requires the cooperation of the concerned dynasties, especially from the Heads of these families. We always try to the best to add more information whenever possible. Additions and corrections will be gratefully accepted, information, addresses or photos are welcome.





H.M. King Felipe VI ( sworn in on 19 June 2014)

The Kingdom of Spain (The Royal House of Borbón) 

H.M. King Juan Carlos I  (abdicated)


H.M. King Charles III 
The Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(The Royal House of Windsor)


H.M. Willem-Alexander

The Kingdom of the Netherlands
(The Royal House of Orange-Nassau)


H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf 
The Kingdom of Sweden
(The Royal House of Bernadotte)


H.M. Queen Margrethe II 
The Kingdom of Denmark
(The Royal House of Glücksborg)

H.M. King Harald V 
The Kingdom of Norway
(The Royal House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg) 

H.M. King Albert II
The Kingdom of Belgium
(The Royal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)


H.S.H. Prince Albert II 
The Principality of Monaco,
(The Princely House of Grimaldi)


H.S.H. Prince Hans-Adam II
The Principality of Liechtenstein
(The Princely House of Liechtenstein)

H.R.H. Grand Duke Henri 
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(The Grand Ducal House of Nassau)

 Middle East


H.M King Salman bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(The Royal House of Al-Saud)


H.M. King Abdullah II 
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
(The Royal House of Hashemite) 


H.M. King Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa 
The Kingdom of Bahrain
(The Royal House of Al-Khalifa)


H.M. Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al-Said 
The Sultanate of Oman
(The Royal House Bu Said)


H.H. Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al-Nahayan 
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Nuhayyan of Abu Dhabi) 


H.H. Sheikh Sabah IV Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah 
The State of Kuwait 
(The Honorable House of Al-Sabah)


H.H. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
State of Qatar
(The Honorable House of Al-Thani)


H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Maktum of Dubay)


H.H. Sheikh Humaid bin Rashid Al-Nuaimi
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Nuaimi of Ajman)


H.H. Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al-Sharqi
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Sharqi of Al-Fujayrah)


H.H. Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed Al-Qasimi 
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Qasimi of Ras Al-Khaymah and Sharjah)


H.H. Sheikh Rashid III ibn Ahmad Al-Mu'alla
The United Arab Emirates
(The Honorable House of Al-Mualla of Umm Al-Qaywayn)



H.M. King Mohammed VI
The Kingdom of Morocco
(The Royal House of Alawi)


H.M. King Letsie III
The Kingdom of Lesotho


H.M. King Mswati III 
The Kingdom of Swaziland
(The Royal House of Dlamini)



H.I.M. Emperor Akihito 
Imperial House of Japan 



H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej
The Kingdom of Thailand (The Royal House of Chakri)

His Majesty King Bhumbol Adulyadej of Thailand, born December 5 1927, died October 13 2016 at age 88

Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn (born July 28, 1952) will be the new monarch


H.M. King Norodom Sihamoni 
The Kingdom of Cambodia


H.M. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck 
The Kingdom of Bhutan
(The Royal House of Wangchuck)


His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong XV
Sultan Muhammad V

State: Kelantan
Term of Office : 13 December 2016 - p


H.M. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzaddin Waddaulah of Brunei
Sultanate of Brunei
(The Royal House of Bolkiah)




H.M. King George Tupou V
The Kingdom of Tonga, dies in Hong Kong, on March 18, 2012 ar age of 63.


Tupou VI the King of Tonga. He is the younger brother and successor of the late King George Tupou V. He was officially confirmed by his brother on 27 September 2006 as the heir presumptive to the Tongan throne, as his brother (a bachelor) had no legitimate children


                 Non-Reigning Monarchies and Their Heirs

A non-sovereign monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity (whether a geographic territory or an ethnic group), and the polity itself, are subject to a temporal authority higher than their own. The constituent states of the German Empire provide a historical example; a contemporary one is the Zulu King, whose power derives from the Constitution of South Africa.

This does not purport to be an exhaustive list, but we trust that it is comprehensive. Dates, if listed, indicate the year in which the individual became claimant.
AFGHANISTAN: HM King Mohammed Zahir Shah

 (October 15, 1914 ? July 23, 2007)


ALBANIA: HM King Leka I (throne assumed in exile**) (1961-) died on November 30, 2011

Heir: HRH Crown Prince Leka II of Albania


ASHANTI: HM Asantehene Osei Tutu II (1999- ) Ghana

AUSTRIA: HIRH Archduke Otto  (1922- July 14, 2011)
Heir: HIRH Archduke Karl of Austria-Hungary


BAVARIA: HRH Duke Franz (1996- )


BRAZIL: HIRH Prince Dom Luiz de Orleans e Braganga

-+ Heir: HIRH Prince Dom Bertrand de Orleans e Braganga (brother)
(Prince Pedro Carlos is genealogically senior but grandson of a prince who renounced his claims)


BUGANDA: HM Kabaka Mutebi II (III) (1969- )

BULGARIA: HM King Simeon II  (1943- )

Heir: HRH Crown Prince Kardam of Bulgaria, Prince of Tirnovo


BURUNDI: Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza
Heir:Prunce Charles Muhirwa


CHINA (Ch'ing): Prince Yu Yan is recognized by


EGYPT: HM King Ahmed Fouad II  (1952- )

Heir: HRH Prince Muhammad Ali, Prince of Said


ETHIOPIA: HIM Emperor Amha Selassie I (throne assumed in exile) (1975- ) [deceased formal succession announced]

Heir: HIH Crown Prince Zara Yakob of Ethiopia



FRANCE (Empire): HIH Prince Jean Christophe Bonaparte (The Prince Napoleon) (1997- )
designated in his grandfather's will; disputed by his father Prince Charles Bonapart

FRANCE (Kingdom): HRH Prince Henri, Count of Paris (1999-)  (son of the preceding claimant, previously known as Count of Clermont)
(Legitimist claimant: HRH Prince Luis Alfonso de Borbon, known to French legitimists as the Duke of Anjou and Bourbon or Louis XX)

GEORGIA: H.R.H.Prince Nugzar Bagration Gruzinsky

GERMANY: HIH Prince Georg Friedrich (1976- )

GERMANY--Anhalt: HH Julius Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (,_Prince



GERMANY--Baden: HDGH Maximilian Andreas Friedrich Gustav Ernst August Bernhard, Grand Duke of Baden / Designated Heir: Bernhard, Hereditary Prince of Baden




GERMANY--Bavaria: HRH Duke Franz von Bayern / Heir: HRH Prince Max-Emanuel Ludwig Maria Herzog in Bayern, Duke in Bavaria



GERMANY--Hanover & Bruswick: HRH Prince Ernst August V  /  Heir: HRH Prince Ernst August of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg



GERMANY--Hesse: HRH Prince Moritz Friedrich Karl Emanuel Humbert Landgraf of Hessen-Kassel, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine  /  Heir: HRH Prince Donatus of Hesse




GERMANY--Lippe-Biesterfeld: HSH Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Lippe (This is contested by HSH Prince Armin of Lippe who renounced his rights in 1953)




GERMANY--Mecklenburg-Schwerin & Strelitz: HIRH Prince Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg / Heir presumptive: HRH Prince Christian-Sigmund of Prussia


GERMANY--Oldenburg: HRH Anton Günther, Grand Duke of Oldenburg  /  Heir: HRH Christian, Duke of Oldenburg



GERMANY--Prussia: HRIH Prince Georg Friedrich  /  Heir presumptive: HRH Prince Christian-Sigmund of Prussia



GERMANY--Reuss-Schleiz: Heinrich VIII


GERMANY--Reuss-Schleiz-Köstritz: HSH Prince Heinrich IV


GERMANY--Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: HSH Andreas Michael Friedrich Hans Armin Siegfried Hubertus  /  Heir: HSH Hubertus, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha




GERMANY--Saxe-Meiningen: HSH Prince Johann Friedrich Konrad Carl Eduard Horst Arnold Matthias Prinz von Sachsen-Meiningen, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen  /  Heir: HSH Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen




GERMANY--Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: HSH Prince Michael-Benedict, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach




GERMANY--Saxony: HRH Prince Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen /  Heir: HRH Alexander Prinz von Sachsen-Gessaphe (adopted)




GERMANY--Schaumburg-Lippe: HSH Prince Ernst August Alexander Christian Viktor Hubert  /  Heir: HSH Prince Heinrich-Donatus




GERMANY--Waldeck & Pyrmont: HRH Prince Wittekind  /  HRH Prince Carl-Anton




GERMANY--Württemberg: HRH Carl, Duke of Württemberg /  Heir: HRH Prince Friedrich



GERMANY (The "de jure" sovereign high nobility of the former Holy Roman Empire are considered royalty and are composed of dukes, princes, and counts --- too many to keep track of)



GREECE: HM King Constantine II  (1964- )

Heir: HRH Crown Prince Pavlos


HANOVER: HRH Prince Ernst August(1987- )



H.R.H. Prince Quentin Kuhio Kawananakoa  (born Sept. 28, 1961)

Heir: HRH Prince Kincaid Kawananakoa (born June , 1997)


 HUNGARY (see also Austria): HIRH Archduke Otto, Crown Prince of Hungary from 1916 Heir: HIRH Archduke Karl of Austria-Hungary


INDIA: too many too list (Maharajahs, nawabs, and other princes of states )


KANDY: Kandy Ramamurthy Rajah


IRAN: HIM Shah Reza II (throne assumed in exile)


ITALY: HRH Prince Victor Emanuel, Prince of Naples, Duke of Savoy

Heir: HRH Prince Emanuel Filiberto, Prince of Venice (Picture)


 Italy: HRH Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Duke of Savoy  Passed away  June 2021

Heir: HRH Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia


ItalyHRH Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany

ItalyTwo Sicilies: HRH Prince Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Castro and Calabria


Italy:  Two Sicilies: HRH Infante Don Carlos, Duke of Calabria, Infante of Spain

Passed away on Sept. 05, 2015



Italy:  Parma: HRH Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Piacenza

Prince Carlos Hugo, the Duke of Parma, passed away in Barcelona of prostate cancer on 18 August 2010. He was 80 years old.

Heir: HRH Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, Prince of Piacenza, Duke of Madrid


 KOREA: HIH Prince Kyu Lee


LIBYA: Prince Mohammed el-Senussi was designated in 1992-3

MEXICO  HIH Count Maximilian von Goetzen-Iturbide, Prince Imperial of Mexico, Prince of Iturbide, Count of Goetzen/  Heir: HIH Prince Fernando



MODENA: HIRH Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este (HRH the Duke of Bavaria is the heir in blood, the Habsburgs have long claimed the title by a dubious devise)

MONTENEGRO: HRH Prince Nichola Petrovich-Njegosh

MUSTANG: HH Raja Jigme Parbal Bista 

  NEPAL: H.M. King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev  (2001- )
Heir:HRH Crown Prince Paras



POLAND: the Polish monarchy was elective, not hereditary, and thus there is no individual claimant [the Polish monarchy was at partition in 1795 set to become hereditary in a branch of the Saxon dynasty now extinct]


PORTUGAL: HRH Prince Dom Duarte, Duke of Braganza (1978- )
Heir: HRH Prince Dom Afonso, Prince of Beira

Duarte Pio only became the pretender to the throne in 2007 after the death of his older brother. The Portuguese monarchy was completely abolished in 1910, which made life difficult for their king who didn’t die until 22 years later. Today, Duarte Pio claims to be the rightful king of Portugal.

PRUSSIA (see also Germany): HIRH Prince Georg Friedrich+ (1994- )


ROMANIA: HM King Michael I* (1940- Dec 05, 2017 )

Passed away Dec. 05, 2017

Heir: Margarita, Crown Princess.



 RUSSIA: HH Prince Nicholas Romanoff  or Romanovsky-Cheremeteff  asserts a claim to be Head of the House of Romanoff - (September 26, 1922-September 14, 2014)

Picture left: Prince Dimitri Romanov



RWANDA: HM King Kigeli V
(His Majesty passed away Sunday October 16, 2016)



SAXONY: HRH Prince Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen


31 January 1926 ? 23 July 2012



SERBIA (see also Yugoslavia): HRH Crown Prince Alexander** (1970- ) Heir: HRH Prince Peter


TURKEY (Ottoman Empire): succession unclear on death of Prince Ertogrul Osman in 2009, Prince Dundar and Prince Osman Bayezid are claimants

VIETNAM: HIH Crown Prince Bao Long (1997- )




WURTTEMBERG: HRH Prince Carl, Duke of Wurttemberg (1975- ) Heir: HRH Prince Friedrich



XHOSA: HM King Maxhoba Sandile


 May 21, 1955 - July 11, 2011




YEMEN: HRH Crown Prince Ahmad al-Ghani  (1996- )



YUGOSLAVIA: HRH Crown Prince Alexander (1970- ) Heir: HRH Prince Peter


ZANZIBAR: HH Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah (1963- )



ZULUS: HM King Goodwill Zwelithini (1972- )



The Constituent Kingdoms of Uganda

Uganda, as a landlocked African nation, experienced colonialism only in the late 19th century, well after European interests had taken control in most other regions of Africa. In the late 19th century it became a protectorate under the British, and unlike many other colonies, the kingdoms and nations within the protectorate retained a wide degree of self-determination. For example, many of the Bantu kings that ruled in the south continued to rule despite the British interests controlling many economic and inter-kingdom affairs. (Like most of Africa’s nations, Uganda’s political boundaries are nonsensical when looking at the peoples that make up its border.Because of this, many aspects of late-nineteenth century African society and the ancient political system survived the colonial experience in Uganda, despite being wiped out in most other parts of the continent.

Perhaps ironically, the Bantu kingdoms that survived the British did not survive their departure. When Uganda became independent in 1963 and abolished commonwealth monarchy, it then proceeded in 1967 to abolish the remaining monarchies. In 1993, the government of President Museveni permitted the Bantu kingdoms to reincorporate, to the extent they were “cultural institutions,” not political institutions. Of course, politics is inevitable in everything—but the real meaning of the restoration of the kingdoms was that the kings have no powers to tax, and receive little funding from the government, requiring them to survive on their own business acumen and their connections.



Bunyoro-Kitara: HM King Solomon Gafabusa Iguru

His Majesty King Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru the First, from the Royal Biito Dynasty is the Forty-ninth Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. He is the twenty-seventh King (Omukama) of one of the most powerful Kingdoms in the history of Africa.


Buganda: HM Kabaka Rodney Muwenda Mutebi II

Ronald Edward Frederick Muwenda Kimera Mutebi II (born 13 April 1955) is the reigning Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda, a kingdom in modern-day Uganda. He is the thirty-sixth (36th) Kabaka of Buganda.

Busoga: His Royal Highness Isebantu Kyabazinga (HRH Henry Wako Muloki)

But in 1995, the government restored monarchies in Uganda with promulgation of the new constitution of the Republic of Uganda; Article 246(1) On February 11, 1995, H.R.H Henry Wako Muloki was reinstated Kyabazinga Isebantu of Busoga.
Toro: HM King Oyo Nyimba Kabambaiguru Rukidi IV
The accession of King Oyo to his father's throne marked the beginning of a challenging and exciting period for the people of Toro. At the infant age of three-and-one half years old, King Oyo of Toro earned a place in the Guinness Book of World Records as the youngest reigning monarch.

Traditional leaders versus de jure sovereign Royals

Especially in Africa and Asia, most local Kings and Queens are limited to a status of a recognized traditional leader of an indigenous people or a group of peoples. Their ancestors signed treaties with the colonial governments and ceded their powers to the new rulers, accepting a leadership position within religion and society only. In exchange, the new authorities agreed to recognize them as Kings or Queens and leaders of their people, within their jurisdiction. They still appear as Kings and Queens according to their traditions and as authorized by the said agreements. They are Honorary Kings so to speak and as such absolutely genuine.

However, although they are acknowledged by the government as traditional leaderships of indigenous peoples or ecclesiastical leaders, they lack the fundament for any kingdom: genuine Royalty or sovereignty. Under international and national law, the sovereignty and Royalty was permanently lost by signing said papers. Although the authorities tend to cooperate with these traditional leaderships, they are, in most cases, not a formal part of the hosting government system nor are they authorized to exercise any real governmental powers.

Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

Confusion appears when talking about the Sultanates in the southern Philippines. The country sees the return of traditional Islamic leaders on its territories, since some years. Several of the re-emerging kingdoms are starting to flourish again and to increase their influence in society and even politics. In many of them the issue who is the current legitimate head is disputed by branches or families. However, although they are acknowledged by the government as traditional leaderships of indigenous peoples and ecclesiastical leaders, they lack the fundament for any kingdom: genuine Royalty or sovereignty. Most, if not all, signed treaties with the colonial governments and ceded their powers to the new rulers, accepting a leadership position within religion and society only. Under international and national law, the sovereignty and Royalty was permanently lost by signing said papers.

Although the Philippine authorities tend to cooperate with these traditional leaderships, they are not a formal part of the Republic nor are they authorized to exercise any real governmental powers. However, they are occasionally granted few powers on a case to case basis or positions in the government.

Titles and awards

The title of Sultan is an honorific, chartered by the carpenter agreement and recognized by the Philippine government as the title of the titular head of Islam and the traditional leader of the Tausug people. The Sultan does neither possess Royalty nor sovereignty under Philippine and international law.

The Sultanate grants honorific titles to persons working within the leadership, corresponding to the ancient governmental, noble and royal titles used in the kingdom when it was a de facto or de jure sovereign entity. These titles are named traditional titles and the bearers are named traditional leaders by the Sultanate. These titles are purely honorific and must not be understood or even used as titles of nobility or Royalty under international law.

Although they do not use it in office, it is hard to find any high ranking government official who does not bear such an honorific title from one of the Sultanates.

The government chartered the practice of awarding such titles under the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples Administrative Order No.1 – Series of 1998 (Footnote 28) in Rule IV, Section 2, and the REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8371 THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ RIGHTS ACT OF 1997:

Philippine Constitution expressly forbade the enactment of any law granting titles of royalty or nobility under Section 31, Article V1.


                              Royalty in Indonesia

The Dutch Colonial Government in the past respected and referred to the authorities of those two principalities in carrying out their autonomous self government, arranged under a political contract. When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed the ruler of both principalities, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince of Regent of Pakualaman declared a statement that Yogyakarta Sultanate and Pakualaman Regency became part of the Republic of Indonesia. Those two regions were unified to form the Special Region of Yogyakarta and the Sultan of Yogyakarta to be the Governor and the Prince of Regent of Pakualaman as the vice-governor, both were responsible for the president of the Republic of Indonesia. The special Region of Yogyakarta was formally formed after the independence war ended and legalized with the Aug 3, 1950.

The Republic of Indonesia is a group of islands located in the Indian and Pacific oceans near Southeast Asia. It is the world's largest archipelago (island group), with around 13,670 islands, more than half of which are uninhabited.

There were many Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in early Indonesia. By the end of the 13th century, Islamic kingdoms had also been established, and over the next few centuries Islam slowly spread through the islands.

In the 16th century, European traders began gaining influence in Indonesia, and eventually the Dutch took control. Indonesia came to be called the Dutch East Indies. It remained a colony of the Netherlands until 1949, when it gained independence. Its first two presidents, Sukarno and Suharto, became dictators, but more recently Indonesia has been moving toward true democracy.

There are over 230 million people in Indonesia. Approximately 88 percent are Muslim, making it the world's largest Islamic country. It is also the fourth most populous country in the world (after China, India, and the United States).

Indonesia is ethnically diverse. Although the official language is Bahasa Indonesia, a form of Malay, many other languages are spoken, including Dutch, English, and local dialects such as Javanese. More than half of all Indonesians live on the island of Java, where the capital city of Jakarta is located.

The former Indonesian province of East Timor, made up of islands at the eastern end of the archipelago, became an independent republic in 2002. Indonesia and East Timor are not monarchies, but traditional leaders still have influence.

The Largest Indonesian Islands

The Indonesian province of Irian Jaya occupies the western half of the world's second largest island, New Guinea. The eastern half of the island belongs to the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Indonesia also owns 75 percent of the world's third largest island, Borneo, which Indonesians call Kalimantan. The rest of Borneo belongs to Brunei and Malaysia. Other large Indonesian islands include Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Java.

Indonesia and Yogyakarta

Indonesia straddles the Equator between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It has land borders with Malaysia to the north; East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the east, Australia to the south and the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand to the north.

Indonesia's unique and cultural heritage, shaped over the centuries by Arabic, Chinese, Indian, Malay, and European influence. This cultural fusion is evident everywhere and has shaped both the country's architecture and its diverse visual and performing arts.

Their historical, invaluable efforts and services for Indonesia are the reason. Yogyakarta Sultanate was actually an independent kingdom outside Indonesia, established at 1755. Indonesia didn?t conquer them. Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesia National Revolution.

When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed (1945), the rulers of Yogyakarta Sultanate, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince of Pakualaman made a declaration they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia. Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX (honorary title) sent a telegram on August 20th, 1945 saying that the kingdom is ready to stand behind Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia.

In return for all Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and Yogyakarta was given the status as a Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia. This was arranged in 1945 Constitution article 18 and Republic of Indonesia Law number 13 year 2012.

In August 2012, the Indonesian parliament passed a law that confirmed the status of the province of Yogyakarta as a so-called Special Region. This status had been in place since Indonesian independence; however, decentralization policies introduced after the fall of Suharto in 1998 raised questions about its legal foundations. The 2012 law appoints the traditional ruler of the former Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwono, as governor of the region without the need for an election. This regulation makes Yogyakarta the only province in contemporary Indonesia whose governor is not freely elected by the people. The law therefore formalized a unique hybrid system of government for Yogyakarta in which elements of democratic rule are combined with features of a traditional monarchy.


ISKS Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X is the reigning Sultan of Jogjakarta and he acts as a Governor for the Special Region of Yogyakarta which is politically independent from the Federal Authority of Jakarta. He will be re-elected every five years. A principality within the state of Jogjakarta lies Kadipaten Paku Alaman.

Chieftain and Customary Law in Ghana?s Fourth Republic

In several African countries, the state developed an antagonistic relationship between itself and traditionally organized society, as it lacks the power to reorganize the society, a typical weakness of both the colonial and post-colonial states.

In Ghana chieftainships survived after the end of colonial rule, as the chiefs remained a powerful authority in the mediation between the state and the communities. After independence, Ghana continued with colonial administrative boundaries and the chiefs maintained the role and power at local level especially in rural areas.

Ghana has a rich indigenous culture. Culturally, the peoples of Ghana have many affinities with their French-speaking neighbors, but each ethnic group has distinctive cultural attributes. In all parts of the country the cultural heritage is closely linked with religion and the institution of chieftain. Various festivals and rites are centered on chieftain and the family and are occasioned by such events as harvest, marriage, birth, puberty, and death.

Ghanaian society is without sharp class distinctions. Insofar as traditional authority is based on a system of hereditary chieftain, it is possible to speak of aristocratic classes within the ethnic groups, but the institution of chieftain is essentially democratic in operation, and the authority of chiefs is broadly based. Land is usually owned by families, militating against the emergence of a small, powerful landed class wielding economic control over a landless class.

The concept of chief is defined as a "person elected or selected in accordance with customary usage and recognized by the government to wield authority and perform functions derived from tradition or assigned by central government within specified areas" (Arhin, 1985). In Ghana, this position is guaranteed under the Fourth Republican Constitution (1992). Article 270 (1) of the 1992 constitution states, "the institution of chieftain, together with its traditional councils as established by customary law and usage, is hereby guaranteed"

Article 277 of the 1992 Constitution defines a chief as "a person, who, hailing from the appropriate family and lineage, has been validly nominated, elected or selected and enstooled, enskinned or installed as a chief or queen mother in accordance with the relevant customary law and usage"