Courts of Arbitral Justice

Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti

Courts of Arbitral Justice

 (Le Corti di Giustizia Arbitrale)

Non-applicability of the nobility laws of the Kingdom of Italy and arbitrations of the Magistrates.

During the reign of Italy in 1869, the Heraldic Consulta was established a college created to give opinions to the government on noble titles, coats of arms and other public honors, which became the maximum consultative organ (non-jurisdictional) in the heraldic field of the order Italian monarchist. Both its composition and functions underwent changes during the history of monarchical Italy. The consultation de facto ceased to exist after June 2, 1946, the date of the establishment of the Italian Republic and the subsequent constitutional repeal (1948) of the noble titles, even if by law there was never a law that explicitly repealed it although the Constitution required legislative power to standardize the abolition of this body.

Today, some functions of the Consulta relating to civic heraldry and other public bodies are the responsibility of the State Ceremonial Department of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers.

The procedure that was adopted for the recognition of noble attributes (judicial measures) began with the presentation of the requests by the interested parties which were examined by the King's Commissioner, who sent them to the regional Commissions for further investigations at local level; accompanied by the opinions of these two bodies, the requests were submitted to the examination of the permanent heraldic junta; in the event of conflicting opinions, the Consultation was addressed. At the end of the process, the application was accepted, and the decree of recognition was issued by the Head of Government, or rejected. Once the administrative complaint had been unsuccessfully filed with the Council against the provisions of the Board, the applicant could sue the Heraldry Council before the ordinary Courts and ask for the required recognition in contradictory form; in the event of a favorable result, the final judgment was sufficient to oblige the Consulta to proceed with the noble registrations following the judicial sentence.

The difference between the rulings in the monarchical regime and those in the republican regime lies in the fact that the titles were "recognized" by the State and therefore attributed in the official documents, so the sentence, registered in the heraldic registers, gave the plaintiff the right to be registered with the title recognized in the Official Noble List and to be mentioned with that title in the documents issued by public officials; while in the republican regime the sentence, even if it had been registered in the heraldic registers (the Magistrate has never pronounced on this point), no longer gave rise to the aforementioned consequences.

The great significance of the Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic's judgment no. 101/67 of 8 July 1967 is to clearly demonstrate that there is no longer an official state body that deals with the protection of noble titles as the Heraldic Consulta had previously done, nor there may be, given that the noble titles "do not constitute the content of a right and, more broadly, do not retain any relevance", nor can judgments be issued by the Judicial Authority, declaring the right of certain people to a noble title. Regarding the protection of the right to the name, the last decree of the President of the Republic is dated 13 March 2012, n. 54 (Official Gazette of the Republic of 10 May 2012, no. 108).

Italy has always been considered a Master in all areas of law and particularly in the nobility for the variety of States that composed it until 1861, here I do not want to enter on the sentences issued during the reign of Italy, as I will also omit to deal here with the numerous judgments of the Courts issued with the most varied arguments, which over the course of over seventy years were obtained - as is the case in many other countries - in order to make public use of a dignity from a so-called house already sovereign whose roots lie in the mists of time, and which often and in the best of cases are the product of the lack of competence of the self-titled experts of heraldry, genealogy, noble law, who in declaring themselves as such endorsed self-styled descendants of already sovereign dynasties of remote era, with impossible genealogies, which for commercial purposes arrogated absurd and incomplete pretensions without scientific basis. Something that certainly does no honor to such "experts" who with their pseudo doctrine have confused the judge by inducing him to pronounce an "acknowledgment" of what has never existed. However, by exonerating the judiciary misled, a fault can also be attributed to those who, knowing the truth, have not (except in very rare cases) brought these suitors to court to contest, and to annul the judgments wrongly obtained, causing the guilty to be punished who they misled the judge. For intellectual honesty, I must also remember that the majority of these absurd sentences were issued in the 1950 and 1960 when genealogy had not yet acquired the current scientific means that easily allow the discovery of false documents.

Instead, I want to emphasize that on the contrary there are sentences where the historical survival of noble titles was used to identify a person based on the right to the name.

In the specific case, the sentence of conviction pursuant to art. 595, paragraphs 3 of the penal code, where the offended person is identified in the defamatory attack on the internet without ever appearing his name or surname, but only a noble title (... crippling his name as count of "C ... ..." , in Count of "C ... ..." ...), among other things, a title not present in the Golden Book of the Italian nobility, but recognized as such by various state heraldic authorities and the general assembly.

Arbitration sentences (honors)

After the aforementioned Constitutional Court ruling no. 101/67 in the impossibility of appealing to the ordinary judge, many turned in the 80 to the Republic of San Marino to obtain nobiliary judgments based on the institution of the petition, trying to reach the surname of noble predicates, in some deliberated cases in Italy. But despite the judgment of the ordinary judge, it should be remembered that San Marino law does not enter into the validity of foreign titles.

The ordinary courts, after the delivery of the Constitutional Court sentence n. 101/67, cannot therefore decide on disputes of a noble nature, so today only the arbitrary tribunals can incidentally recognize the residual aristocratic rights belonging to the person entitled for patrimonial purposes.

In 2006, the reform of arbitration law took place in Italy, which expands its range of action and its powers, and provides that the parties, pursuant to art. 832 c. p. c., first paragraph, can refer to a pre-established arbitration regulation.

I state that today in Italy lawyers do not study and know noble law so if you want to avoid incurring the same risk that in the past misled certain judges who trusted self-appointed experts, it is necessary that today the judges of arbitrary awards referring to "the residual nobility still in existence" may prove a university-level education certified and attested by universities alone which in the world are an example of the study of noble law, first of all the UNED of Madrid

Arbitration is a tool for the resolution of disputes usually of an alternative commercial nature to the ordinary legal process, where two or more parties, by signing a prior arbitration clause, or a subsequent arbitration compromise, decide to delegate the resolution of a civil and commercial dispute with third parties acting as arbitrators, replacing the ordinary Court.

Its fundamental characteristic is the possibility for the parties to choose the referees, the subjects who will decide the dispute, between technicians and experts in the field.

The procedure ends with a final provision that if it has been correctly achieved according to all the rules of the state law of application and if it does not conflict with the legal order of the place of application, on request it can achieve the same "value" as a sentence issued by the civil judge ; c.d.. Exequatur.

The institution of arbitration is foreseen by the Code of Civil Procedure (book IV, title VIII, articles 806-840);

Article 23 of Legislative Decree no. 40 of 2 February 2006, which almost entirely modified the Title VIII of the fourth book of the Code of Civil Procedure, dedicated to arbitration, introduced Article 824 bis into the Ritual Code, which reads as follows: “Except as provided by Article 825, the award has from the date of its last signing the effects of the sentence pronounced by the judicial authority". However, it should be remembered that it is forbidden to resort to arbitration for matters relating to family law and for those "which cannot be the subject of a transaction", i.e. as the only true limit to arbitration is the unavailability of the right and therefore the lack of negotiating skills.

The award therefore, if (as clarified above) follows a ritual arbitration, it can achieve not only that binding efficacy in relations between the parties (which is due to a gentlemen Agreement), but also be capable of obtaining executive title efficacy, if filed with the clerk of the court of the place where it was issued, executive capacity is conferred on it by the judge, like the sentence issued by the ordinary judicial authority. Thus the Registrar of the Court affirms the executive formula and precisely: "We command all the judicial officers who are required to do so and whoever is responsible, to implement this title, to the public prosecutor to assist you, and to all the officers of the public force of compete, when they are legally required "(art. 475 of the cpc). Thus the act to which this formula is affixed becomes a real enforceable title pursuant to art. 474 of the c.p.c.

However, the award remains a private act, to which the law links the same declaratory effects of the sentence that is public, and also can, regardless of the enforceability, be challenged for nullity, revocation or third party opposition.

The other possibilities protected by law

In the Italian Republic, as already mentioned, nobility has no juridical value and therefore there is no possibility of having it recognized as such by the State. However, there are viable ways that allow you to maintain its historical memory and obtain public recognition of a legal nature in other forms.

Today in Italy there are no nobles understood as belonging to a group of people enjoying a privileged status recognized by the state authority. The historian Marc Bloch defines "nobility" as that ruling class which has its own legal status, which confirms and materializes the superiority that it claims and which is perpetuated by inheritance, and in fact the nobility had the characteristic of being privilege and enjoy advertising, or the privilege of enjoying a treatment different from the others, were it only to have the indication of the noble title in the civil status documents, or in the public documents of the bodies, or notaries; and by privilege we can include the fact that the nobles appeared in the lists of Italian nobility published by the state.

But if today it is impossible to regain that condition, centuries of history must not be canceled because the Constitution has decided that from 1 January 1948 or more than 70 years ago the nobility is no longer recognized.

It should also be noted that if today the nobility enjoyed legal recognition, it would not follow the noble laws of the kingdom of Italy (today unconstitutional); think only of the evolution of the civil code which since 1972 has included divorce, the 1975 family law, or the equation of children (born inside marriage, outside marriage, and adopted). It is clear that those laws of the Kingdom of Italy that have become obsolete could not be applied today.

I have the conviction, however, that there are concrete possibilities to keep the historical memory of what the nobility was in the descendants of those who belonged to it and with the full recognition of the State, but the search for an impossible recognition as it happened during the reign must be shelved Italy.

We note that after more than 70 years those who had obtained the recognition of the nobility in the great majority are dead. Who remains of the once recognized nobles?

And passing on to their descendants, if the state can no longer recognize them as nobles (and it is not said that they would have been recognized during the monarchy, because in addition to inheriting the noble succession, it had to have certain characteristics, such as adequate and appropriate social position, or the total absence of serious criminal convictions and so on) what are those people today?

If the state does not recognize them as nobles, the descendants of the nobles remain, that is, the holders of those incorporeal predicaments inherited from their ascendants according to the civil code (all the noble laws of the kingdom of Italy are unconstitutional, and those pre-unification they are the same way). In Europe, then, in recent decades we have witnessed a once unthinkable evolution of noble law, as for example occurred in Spain where today the succession of sizes and titles takes place for the benefit of the first born regardless of gender, in open contrast with what provided for the diploma of concession.

The main incorporeal inheritance that we receive from our ancestors is undoubtedly the right to the name (and, therefore, to the surname) which is a fundamental and absolute right of the person. It is part of the broadest protection to be recognized according to their individual characteristics, an expression of their personality. This essential and primary right is protected by the Constitution of the Italian Republic (articles 2 and 22) *1, but also by art. 8 of the European Convention for Human Rights and by art. 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, where the notion of "private life" also includes the rights of the personality. It is clear how the individual's right to his own, unique and personal identity must face the need for publicity for the stability and certainty of the identifying elements of the person and his legal and social status and, therefore, for the certainty of legal acts and relationships. Article. 6 of the civil code, which gives each person the right to have a name, adds that this is "by law attributed", before establishing that, by definition, the name includes "first name and surname". Paragraph 3, on the other hand, referring to the law to find out the conditions to be integrated, specifies that "changes, additions or corrections" are allowed when specific formal and substantial requirements are met. The reference law, in this case, is the Presidential Decree of the Republic of 3 November 2000, n. 396.

*1 (Italian law guarantees the right to identity of the person through provisions of various ranks which guarantee each individual the right to name. The Constitution, in article 22 * ​​1, prevents anyone from being "private, for political reasons, legal capacity, citizenship, name. "From this statement derives the maximum protection of the right in question in relation to political interests that could generate discrimination towards some subjects. This provision, in fact, represents an articulation of the fundamental principles contained in the first part of the Constitution, such as safeguarding the inviolable rights of the person (article 2 Constitution).

The Constitution of the United States of America of 17 September 1787 in article I - Section X in Chapter 1 states: "States will not be able to conclude treaties, alliances or confederate pacts; neither to grant permits of prey and retaliation, nor to beat money; nor issue debt securities; nor allow the payment of debts to take place in any other form than with gold or silver coins; neither approve bill of attainder, nor laws with retroactive value, nor laws that in some way deny the effectiveness of contractual obligations; nor can they confer noble titles ”. Therefore, it is clear that in the USA, noble titles cannot be conferred in any form and no authority would contravene the Constitution.

If we want to maintain and then transmit the historical memory of what was the nobility, we just have to follow the possible still remaining public roads (the private because of its nature has no legal value) that allow us to protect in another form our incorporeal inheritances, thus making them our exclusive property, and inhibiting others from being able to use them.

The way forward is public recognition related to personal identification as holders of a historical right linked to the moral heritage of our family. We must think that personal identification as a public recognition referring to the nobility (and not only) was supported first by prof. adv. Claudio Schwartzberg, already in the 80 of the last century and subsequently until today by Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti.

Camillo Benso, was a nobleman of the marquises of Cavour, but everyone recognizes him as the count of Cavour, because in Piedmont the second son of a marquis was called out of courtesy count, so that title never granted (which certainly cannot be a noble title), is the personal identification of Camillo Benso, and not being a noble title it was not in conflict with the laws of the time and would not be today with the Constitution of the Italian Republic.

What about the honorary citizenships granted by the mayors of many places in the ancient southern states of the USA such as duke of Paducah, duke of Albuquerque, duke or duchess of Hazard, or that of count of Pulaski, granted by Pulaski County, which although they seem they are not noble titles because they come from a nation that cannot grant them; therefore they are honors with an apparent noble form that become the personal identification of the container.

Although the chances of public recognition can be many here, I focus only on four:

1) As it is no longer possible for Italians to register the coat of arms at State Heraldic Offices as it was in the past (Spain, South Africa), today all that remains is the possibility of registering the graphic expression of the name or the coat of arms, but intended as a trademark . In Italy, trademarks are filed for registration with the UPICA (Provincial Office for Industry, Trade and Crafts), Italian Patent and Trademark Office section, which are located in the Chambers of Commerce of each Province. The trademark, in law, indicates any sign likely to be represented graphically, in particular: words (including people's names), drawings, letters, numbers, sounds, the shape of a product or its packaging, combinations or chromatic shades , provided that the trademark is suitable for distinguishing the products or services of one company from those of the others.

The coats of arms and other signs considered in the relevant international conventions, in the cases and conditions mentioned in the conventions themselves, as well as the signs containing symbols, emblems and coats of arms that are of public interest, cannot be registered as a trademark, unless the competent authority has authorized its registration.

In general, only the coats of arms of those families included in the Golden Book of the Italian nobility (i.e. those who provided for the recognition of their nobility) can find difficulties in registering the trademark, while the others, having not been heraldically protected before, are easily able to do so. Obviously, the registration must be done correctly and appropriate to the validity of the trademark. Registration lasts ten years from the date of filing of the application, except in the case of renunciation of the owner, and upon expiry, it can be renewed each time for a further ten years.

The Head of the Royal House of Portugal dom Duarte of Braganza, Duke of Braganza, having not protected in Portugal the symbols of his orders and dynastic reward systems as a trademark, had been seen in the past to inhibit the use due to another person who had registered.

In Italy, the trademark is governed by articles 7 to 28 of the industrial property code.

If the registration is not successful in Italy it is possible to register the trademark in other countries, and more easily in the Republic of San Marino.

2) The deposit of the coat of arms (intended as the graphic expression of the name) with a notary with a private writing (in this way there is a certain date of use).

3) Registration of the copyright of the name and surname with the indication of the noble title claimed by the registrant, but intended as personal identification, together with the coat of arms.

4) The recognition of the pseudonym created with the noble title that the family had by asking for recognition to the SIAE.

All of the above in these four possibilities refer only to public deeds that go beyond the limits of the private sphere, quite unlike the inefficiency of any private association "recognition".


Accurate history hinge on realism, not publication on the internet by a self-appointed "authority." History, like science, has experts but no authorities.

Descendant from nobility does not automatically make you a noble. You must prove without doubt to be the rightful and direct line of the nobility ancestor. Need a serious professional genealogist researcher because there may be cases where the nobility is only for the person who receives the noble concession and not his.

Centuries after the American and French revolutions, a global market flourishes in false titles of nobility and self-styled orders of chivalry. This occurrence is because it provide to a general common desire to feel virtuous about oneself, a sense of well-being dependent on the drive to assert one's distinctiveness and the yearning for recognition.

False titles of nobility are supposed titles of nobility that have been fabricated and are not recognized by any government and were not so recognized in the past, even in countries in which titles of nobility once existed or still exist. They have received an increasing amount of press attention, as the number of schemes that attempt to sell these titles has increased. False titles are also sometimes connected to self-styled orders of chivalry.

A monarch, whether reigning or deposed cannot create a law for other countries or entities outside of his territorial authority. A valid monarch is restricted to his or her own jurisdiction and does not have authority outside of that boundary. He or she can legally establish rules only in his or her own lawful land or dominion but does not have authority or right to change anything in another nation's territorial possession. That is, a monarch in the Central Africa cannot change the legal situation for a claimant in Western Asia or in the Americas, nor can he or she, or anyone for that matter, have the right to change a falsehood into a legal right or make a lie true outside of his or her own restricted jurisdiction. Moreover, always if he is still on the throne, out of the throne his concessions are private and are not recognized internationally by those countries that recognize the successor state.

The most important thing to do when considering any claim is to be distrustful. This is not a time to be credulous or easy prey. The shaded nature of many claims are kept hidden and disguised. They are not transparent. They do not want you to uncover their fraudulence.

Can a sovereign recognize a claim, whatever the antecedence of that claim, such a claim has ceased to be “false” by virtue of the act of its sovereign recognition?

Recognition by a valid sovereign entity, ". . . negates any debate over our (ambiguous) origins. That is absurd. Does a sovereign have the legal right to make the world flat, make the Sun revolve around the earth or give Mickey Mouse or Cinderella sovereignty? Not only does this statement contravene common sense and good reason, but also it is absolute rubbish, which any reasonable person can see very clearly.

Can a sovereign give an Order of Chivalry independent sovereignty?

Recognition by a true and authentic king or sovereign prince cannot give an order of chivalry independent sovereignty. “Sovereignty is neither created by recognition nor destroyed by no recognition.” Sovereigns cannot make other people or organizations independently sovereign without losing their own right to rule, because they would have to transfer the supreme right to that group. Some bogus Orders of Chivalry claim that this or that ancient sovereign in history made them independently sovereign. The problem is that is a legal impossibility. If legitimate sovereigns had this power in international law, questionable sovereigns, instead of selling noble titles or knighthoods, would be creating thousands of new sovereign monarchs, who would have no territories and no real rights.

The claim that ecclesiastical have sovereignty.

Sovereignty is a secular right, not a religious one. Some bring up the Pope saying he is a religious leader who has sovereignty. However, they fail to understand that the Pope, besides being a spiritual leader, he is also the elected prince or ruler of an internationally recognized sovereign territory and still holds the deposed or de jure rights to the former Italian Papal territories once ruled over by the Popes.

The Pope, also known as the supreme pontiff is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State.

Religious leaders, with the exception of the Pope, have no secular rights. They can only give out private religious awards. That is, the reward systems that can be awarded as a honor to their faithful even in imitation of Orders of Merit but must be used and have value only within the Church that granted them.

The lack of recognition by the Holy See does not exclude the right of those who have historical legitimacy as successors of the great period, to reorganize the order as a juridical person of canon law (association of the Christian faithful) and civil association. However, they must have at least the recognition of some Ordinary Diocesan (Bishop).

Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti, well known  and  respected researcher, scholar, president of ICOC (International Commission for Orders of Chivalry), “In fact, it is possible to reorganize the Order as an association of the faithful and as a civil association, also taking into account the laws in the various countries and international law. Remember that at the moment no country in the world could recognize this right. Only Italy authorizes the use of the Orders of the pre-unification dynastic historical heritage. Outside of Italy, no country recognizes orders from the historical heritage of a nation. With civil laws, historical organization can be attributed the right value for carrying out statutory activities…. The question is whether this person has historical legitimacy or if he is a fanciful. Obviously all those organizations that have NO historical legitimacy are Self-styled orders or false orders….”

A private association of the Christian faithful freely designates its moderator and officials according to the norm of the statutes. Under the 1917 Code of Canon Law, groups of laity that gathered with a common purpose and apostolate were called piae uniones ("pious unions"). With the replacement of the former code by the 1983 Code of Canon Law, they were referred to as associations of the faithful. Nevertheless, they must always have the approval of the diocesan ordinary where they are based.

A private association of the Christian faithful can freely choose a spiritual advisor, if it desires one, from among the priests exercising ministry legitimately in the diocese; nevertheless, he needs the confirmation of the local ordinary. No private association of Christ's faithful is recognized in the Church unless the competent authority has reviewed its statutes. Associations that are approved on an international level are approved by the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life (previously by the Pontifical Council for the Laity) and listed in the Directory of International Associations of the Faithful. Associations that exist on a national level are approved by a country's episcopal conference, while the local bishop approves those at a diocesan level.


Micro-nations have no right to bestow knighthoods.

No Micronation has any real, genuine or authentic right to bestow true titles of nobility or bestow knighthoods. They are fantasy countries. These nations usually exist only on paper, on the Internet, or in the minds of their creators. They are make-believe with no actual sovereign authority.

We have all heard of places like Liechtenstein and the Vatican, tiny European nations with minuscule populations. Yet these are internationally recognized states—actual countries. Even more bizarre are Micronations: quirky little self-proclaimed lands, which have come into existence for the strangest of reasons.

The times of kings and queens have long gone, on the surface at least, but we are well aware the royal clans and the black nobility still holding onto the reigns, although more hidden and covertly than centuries ago. It’s the 21th century and sovereignty no longer revolves around crowns, scepters and emperors in silky robes, no divine right to rule required or granted. It is about the sovereign self, how to grow into it, to act like a leader without being bossy and envision a leaderless society rather than submitting to political travesty.

A Micronation is a political entity that claims to be a sovereign state but is not recognized as such by the wider international community. Micronations are treated as distinct from conventional unrecognized states, although there is no widespread consensus within micropatriology over what exactly constitutes a Micronation or distinguishes it from other unrecognized states. Broadly speaking, Micronations are created and developed as a hobby, with their claims to sovereignty considered trivial enough to be ignored by the conventional sovereign states whose territory they claim; Micronations whose ultimate goal is to receive international recognition as sovereign states are termed secessionist, and Micronations without this goal are termed simulations.

The often referred to 1933 Montevideo Convention, only attended to and ratified by representatives of 16 countries of the Americas, tried to outline what determines or qualifies as a state (not a country or nation). In itself, it was a rather poor attempt, although it confirmed one very important fact, to recognize a state as a person of international law, a legal and fictitious person, sometimes endowed with more rights than natural persons under its statutory law.

Governments in exile still hold the supreme right?

A government-in-exile consists of an individual or a group of individuals residing in a foreign State who:

  • 1 claims supreme authority over either a State in the sense of international law which is still under the control of another national or foreign authority or a State to be created on the territory of another State in anticipation of coming political events.
  • 2 is recognized as such at least by the State in which it resides, notwithstanding its lack of effective control over its home State and,
  • 3 is organized to perform and actually performs some acts of State on behalf of the home State or the State to be created.

A monarchy retains all the rights of sovereignty, if illegally deposed the head of the royal house being the personification and embodiment of the nation, is automatically the government in exile or that nation. If an illegal government deposes a republic, some high-ranking responsible individuals in the executive and or legislative branches are the only ones who can rightfully establish a lawful government-in-exile.

Just because some organization claims to be a government in exile, does not make it so. Claims need to be researched and verified by reliable sources. If a government in exile were legitimate, it would have "de jure" internal sovereignty and therefore authority to do many things. However, the problem is, anyone can make the false claim on the internet. Fabrications abound and counterfeit claims sadly appear to be on the escalation.

The question is whether this person has historical legitimacy or if he is a make-believe. Obviously all those organizations that have NO historical legitimacy are Self-styled orders or false orders.

Orders of merit are not genuine knighthoods. They are not orders of chivalry. They are imitations of what is real. True knighthood is inseparably connected to Royalty, not to tribal or republican government. Only if a government in exile is a legally valid entity will they hold the right to rule. All others have no fons honorum, which is an exclusive entitlement that belongs to the supreme right to govern.

Non-existent or abandoned deposed royal houses.

Non-existent or abandoned deposed royal houses or once famous ancient orders of chivalry cannot be restored to full dignity and power of a de jure sovereignty and therefore can create knighthoods, etc.

Such houses and orders that are extinct, no longer have any sovereignty. They no longer exist, because all their rights have been extinguished forever by international law. They cannot be re-established, restored or renewed. Those rights are lost for all eternity – that is the law. You simply can't restore something you do not own and have no legal or lawful right to. The once great power to do so is null and void after they are forfeited by the law of nations and the law of nature.

Following the War of the Spanish Succession, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht brought a new rule within public international law.  Specifically, a prince or princess that enjoyed rights of royal succession in his or her home country had to renounce these rights when marrying into a foreign royal family.  The purpose of this international law was to prevent the union of crowns through dynastic marriages.  History is rife with royal marital unions that eventually led to war and strife over dynastic rights.  Because of the creeping effect of personal unions leading to the amalgamation of small principalities into huge empires that could upset the political equilibrium, customary public international law requires the renunciation of succession rights whenever a prince or princesses marries into another sovereign House.

Therefore, a royal comity exists among the royal Houses of Europe: when a prince or princess that has rights of succession in his or her own House marries into a foreign royal House, he or she fully renounces the rights of succession to his or her own House.  This is so that he or she may enter the royal House of his or her spouse, receive and use the titles accorded him or her within that House, and become a subject of its sovereign.  The effect is to prevent the possibility of a union of successions to different thrones under international law.

The history of Europe is filled with dynastic abdications, renunciations, and the transfer of thrones.  For a person to claim that royal rights are irrenunciable incapable of abdication, etc., is to demonstrate both ignorance of European history in general and dynastic law in particular.

If a lawful heir is born or conceived before an ancestor abdicates or renounces a royal claim, the heir has a full hereditary birthright in a hereditary monarchy. Any person other than the heir cannot extinguish these rights. However, if the heir fails to publicly or diplomatically protest against the ancestor’s renunciation or abdication, if the heir is of sufficient age to properly understand the need to protest, the heir will legally accept the renunciation or abdication and lose all succession rights.  This becomes irrevocable under public international law and cannot be changed.  That is, if such a living descendant "remains silent [when] a protest is necessary to preserve a claim," such as, when a renunciation of one’s father to the throne takes place, it results in an "expessis verbis" or irrevocable acceptance of the act of renunciation.  This results in his or her legal "abandonment of rights”. The abandonment includes the relinquishment of succession rights for any unborn or non-conceived children of the heir that failed to act.

A person with royal ancestors cannot claim ancient de jure sovereignty on that basis alone.

The mathematical study of genealogy indicates that everyone in the world is descended from Nefertiti, Confucius, and everyone of European ancestry is descended from Muhammad and Charlemagne. As much as 90 percent of the original common stock of Europe are descendants of Charlemagne. Nearly 80% of the English high middle class are descendants of King Edward III of England. Does that make all (about 6,000 of them royals? Are 90% of the people of Europe kings because they can trace their ancestral line back to Charlemagne? Obviously not.


Genetics and DNA to find your ancestry.

Different genetic testing companies can yield different results. Siblings took DNA tests and got different results. Why determining ancestry is rarely accurate. Commercial DNA tests that claim to tell people whether they are related to Richard III or descended from the Vikings are no more than "genetic astrology", scientists have warned.

The amount of DNA any individual inherits from relatives just a few steps up their family tree is negligible compared with the vast amount we all share from common ancestors.

It means any ancestral "history" identified by a simple genetic test is just one of dozens of possible interpretations, and to try to trace our lineage directly through our genes is "absurd". Private genetic tests have become big business in recent years, with many companies offering tests, which claim to identify whether people are related to famous figures such as Napoleon or Cleopatra, or have DNA from specific racial groups.

A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome, in order to find or verify ancestral genealogical relationships or (with lower reliability) to estimate the ethnic mixture of an individual. Since different testing companies use different ethnic reference groups, consisting of now living test persons with unknown pre-census time origins, the estimated ethnic mix is contradictory among companies.

Since a company can match people only to relatives in its customer base, so if you wanted to find as many relatives as possible, you would need to use multiple companies such as Living DNA, Family Tree DNA, 23andMe, Geno 2.0 and AncestryDNA. These companies analyze hundreds of thousands of natural DNA spelling variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. To estimate ethnic makeup, a company compares your overall SNP pattern with those of people from around the world. SNP matches also help companies see whom in their database you are related to.

Some of the companies also analyze a person’s Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA. Y chromosome DNA traces a man’s paternal line. In contrast, mitochondrial DNA traces maternal heritage, since people inherit mitochondria, which generate energy for cells, only from their mothers. Neither type of DNA changes that much over time, so those tests usually cannot tell you much about recent ancestors.

More molecular forms of ancestor-seeking have now burst onto the scene with millions of people having their DNA analyzed by 23andme,, National Geographic, and others. There are two big problems with this, however. First, different companies can give quite different results, and secondly, the whole process of assigning DNA sequences to geographic ancestry is probabilistic, not certain, and this is not always presented clearly. In some cases, the error range can be huge. In other words, the science is just not there yet and it might never be, given how intermixed we all actually are. Individuals and families were always crossing borders and mixing.

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One is NOT an authentic noble or knight if the original authority that created the noble title or conferred the knighthood no longer exists.

"The Nobility and knighthood, in fact, constitute a temporary corporation or guild, authorized and ultimately owned by the king or sovereign prince of the land. . . ." (Immanuel Kant, The Philosophy of Law: An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right, William Hastie, ed., no. 8(c), 1887) If there is no living breathing sovereign alive who has jurisdiction and authority over the reigning or deposed kingdom or principality, then all titles and orders created by this royal house cease to be public titles. Only the supreme right of sovereignty can maintain and perpetuate public international honors. If that original authority dies out, then all titles created by them and all knighthoods or order immediately, become private.

Popularity and general acceptance does not create a sure sign of authenticity that a royal claim is true.

Francis Barrymore Smith wrote, ". . . The vote of the whole world cannot make wrong right, falsehood truth, robbery honest, or usurpation other than usurpation." (Radical artisan, William James Linton, 1812-97, 1973, p. 220) Concerning the liar, he wrote, "If the whole world believe his lie, would that alter the nature of falsehood?" (Ibid.) No, what is false is false. Popularity and general acceptance does not assure validity. Many well-accepted royals and nobles are lamentably total frauds.

The truth will always come out, so by lying you are only “buying time”

Why do we become diplomatic when we know the obvious truth? Diplomacy protects us in the short term, but it is honesty that brings long-term benefits and permanent gains. Most of us use lies from time to time to avoid difficult situations and hide our feelings or intentions. However lying always comes with a price whilst the truth is invaluable.

Anyone who has the power to make you believe absurdities has the power to make you commit injustices (Voltair).

It’s ironic that this, about not believing things just because you’ve read them somewhere, but for many people the assumption seems to be, “It must be true — I saw it on a website!” “It was sent to me!”.

We also wonder why some non reigning royal families using diplomacy to justify their support to a false prince because, as some said “it is not important of legitimacy royal family but someone who is popular and known”. This is so absurd and misleading the public and themselves were attracted by these the prince's "granting of knighthoods and titles of nobility....a piece of paper that has no value.

There are a few hundreds fakes princes on Internet very popular and well known by many, does it mean now they are proclaimed as real and royal princes? Many of them have managed to be photographed with royals. The disguises allowed the 'princes' not only to blag travel freebies, but to arrange meetings with leading businessmen and religious authorities

Honesty and trust are central to integrity. Acting with honor and truthfulness are also basic tenets in a person with integrity. Sometime we wonder if those non reigning royal families still support a false prince knowing his real background is because they too are hiding something or want to be more populars? Diplomacy is only for self-protection; it is a self-preservation device. The difference between living a superficial life and a rich and meaningful one is eventually determined by whether we are being diplomatic or brutally honest.

Perhaps it is true that the best diplomats understand when to say nothing, or not to say everything: no negotiator shows his full hand. But in reality honesty remains one of the most important qualities of a decent diplomat. Deviousness backfires.

Being wealthy or influential does not automatically make one a King or noble.

Court decrees does not provide absolute assurances of validity

Regrettably, this is one of the major trickery or rip-offs used to cheat people out of their money. The title is probably real historically, but then they revealed themselves and their scheme, "The title is vacant and ready for assignation through decision of a court of justice." That is the fraud. They take an extinct title and will sell it to you and have a justice declare, by some invented means, that it is your title somehow by magic. A judge cannot legitimately confer a title of nobility on another person. The only title they can give you is that of "criminal”.

Guy Stair Sainty, a well-known expert on nobility and royalty, declared, ". . . the Italian Courts have been persuaded to consider numerous claims to titles of nobility without actually applying nobiliary law, leading to some bizarre decisions.

One swindler we have dealt with even bragged how he got a Republic of San Marino court long ago to rule the he was the rightful count of something or other when it was a big fat lie and he knew it, but he was delighted with what he got away with. The Republic no longer allows this kind of thing, but it was once widely used by counterfeiters to lie and deceive others into thinking they were legit. Court decrees are not to be trusted or relied. They use "preponderance of evidence" rules, 51% assurance, which means their decisions have almost as much likelihood of being wrong as they have of being right depending on what evidence is presented and what evidence is hidden, disguised or never introduced, to trick or manipulate the court into making a certain decision...."

Read more: “European Court of Arbitral Justice”

Note from Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti on Courts of Arbitral Justice (Corte Europea di Giustizia Arbitrale) treated during the III International Colloquium on Nobility in Madrid 2019. See left column .

The study of the nobility and heraldry

The study of the nobility and heraldry simply cannot exist without a rigorous basis in genealogical science. Genealogy is the only means of determining familial ancestry lineage, be it aristocratic or commoner.

The study of family history, or genealogy, is perhaps one of the most ancient of human interests. When a person in search of his ancestors or genealogy, seek  to know the origins of their family, perhaps with the hidden personal desire to discover royal blood or the coat of arms of his family. Where genealogical facts are few, and these located in the remote past, reconstruction of family history is often more imaginative than correct. 

Recent decades have witnessed an increasingly widespread interest in coats of arms and titles of nobility, many of whom have been deceived by heraldic or genealogical research firms into believing themselves to be armigerous or even titled. The typical person who boasts of a "noble" lineage dating from the Middle Ages based on genealogical research by experts is the victim of such deception. Still others have paid merchants thousands for supposed "titles of nobility" which, in reality, cannot be sold or transferred in law; those purchasing such "titles" have fallen prey to dreaming.

Determining whether this or that title of nobility sported by this or that person is "legitimate" has become a house industry among narrow-minded, obsessive nonprofessional seeking to discredit the claims of charlatans – or the pretensions of folks these self-styled experts believe to be charlatans. While acknowledging that such claimants sometimes manage to deceive the uninformed.

Scholars' efforts in this area are often distort because the typical fantasist claiming to be a count or duke poses very little danger to society.

“For who does not know history's first law to be that an author must not dare to tell anything but the truth? And its second that he must make bold to tell the whole truth? That there must be no suggestion of partiality anywhere in his writings? Nor of malice?”

Burden of proof

In historical studies, as in science, the burden of proof that an event occurred lies with the party making the assertion or proposition.

Anybody who claims a title of nobility should be able to prove its authenticity; whether he actually wishes to provide such proof to anyone is his personal prerogative. Any person who presumes to be addressed by a title or appellation not recognized in current law in any nation or region should be prepared to defend such a claim, e.g. someone who emphasizes that people address him by a title of nobility that is not even recognized in country. The late Giovanni of Bourbon* of the Two Sicilies once observed, that in his experience, it was those having the most tenuous claims to ancestral nobility who made the most noise about it.

* Leopoldo Giovanni Giuseppe Michele of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince of Salerno was a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and a Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Born Leopoldo of Naples and Sicily, he was the sixth son of Ferdinand IV of Naples and wife Maria Carolina of Austria, daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.

Knighthood private Organizations

Many groups use the concept of knighthood to inspire their members in some way and to build better people. In every instance the an accolade of knighthood now has little to do with the feudal structure and everything to do with a recognition of a particular kind of individual who has built their renown in the context of doing right.

These usually describe themselves as "military and Hospitaller" and are given out by private individuals. The names of such bodies tend to be those of orders that once existed under the authority or protection of the Papacy or another sovereign ruler but no longer do so.

Dubious dynastic orders and questionable private initiatives. Those originating such so-called orders may obtain, in an effort to acquire a semblance of respectability, the spiritual support and patronage of the Patriarch of an autocephalous Eastern Church. In addition to making unjustifiable historical claims about their origins, their promoters invariably assume bogus titles of nobility ostensibly showing them to be the heads of former reigning houses and thus genuine fountains of honor.

Although bona fide orders have been created out of private initiative for charitable, military or religious purposes, there has been a large number of orders created either to satisfy personal vanity, or to enrich a group of people or both. Such a blanket statement need condemn not all recently created orders of chivalry, but caveat emptor remains the rule.

 Read more about “SELF-STYLED NOBILITY” at:

While noble status formerly conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, today it is a largely honorary dignity in all nations, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved legally (e.g. Netherlands, Spain, UK) and some Asian, Pacific and African sub-cultures may still attach considerable significance to formal, hereditary rank or titles.

No private Organization has the authority to recognize titles of nobility.

No private Organization has the authority to recognize titles of nobility. No private organizations has the authority to recognize titles of nobility on behalf of Italy's royal dynasties or the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. This includes the "Corpo Della Nobiltà Italiana" which, contrary to a popular misconception, is not a "college of arms," court of chivalry or "legal successor to the Consulta Araldica," and whose "decisions" are no longer recognized by the Order of Malta. Italy has no "college of arms" or other government agency empowered to recognize titles of nobility or personal coats of arms. It should be remembered that historical fact is ascertained through scientific reasoning and solid evidence, not via "approval" from a self-appointed "authority" or by somebody who happens to be descended from royalty.

There are on the Web some Institutes, one especially, recognize fake titles of nobility, Order of chivalry and fake sovereigns.

The Institute is a self-regulating body, organized and derived from the founding Royal Houses for the collection of Passage fees and fees contributed by members of Royal Orders that go to the respective dynastic chancelleries.Providing mechanism for the regulation, registration, recognitionconfirmation and a permanent archival register of the various Dynastic Histories, Rights, Fons Honorum, Honor Systems, Titles, Orders, Grants and Arms, as derived from their Royal Privileges and Prerogatives. The Institute will issue, corresponding certificates on behalf of the affiliated Dynastic Houses.